The “Old General”

Rank and GravityThe first biography of the ancestor of our compatriot Nicholas Hayes, General John Armstrong – “the Old General” – has been published. The title is Rank and Gravity, The Life of General John Armstrong of Carlisle. The author is William Betts. It’s published by Heritage Books of Westminster, MD, their reference number B5273 and is available from them. 668 pages in paperback. Costs $50 plus $7 shipping (US).

The biography of the “Young General” John Armstrong, Jr. 1758-1843 by C. Edward Skeen (Syracuse University) is out of print but generally available at